Information of Pipe Fittings
What are pipe fittings?
Pipe fittings basically include the range of components that are used to connect pipe ends for in-line, multi-port, offset and mounting configurations. Pipe fitting cross sections are mostly, but not always, circular in shape to match with the pipe section with which they are connected. Pipes can be metallic or plastic and pipe fittings vary depending on the type of pipe used.
Pipe fittings are used for various purposes. They can be used to extend or terminate pipe runs, change a pipe’s direction, to connect two or more pipes and to change the pipe size.
Pipe fittings are used with equal importance in pressurized applications and non-pressure applications like drain, waste, and vent (DWV) systems. Pipe fitting also finds application in plumbing, HVAC (High Voltage Alternating Current), manufacturing, etc. Pipes are primarily meant for transporting various solids and fluids, and hence, pipes and pipe fittings are constructed from a wide range of materials. In fact, the materials used for making pipe fittings depend much on their application.
- Size is the most important parameter that should be considered while buying pipe fittings. There are various options available for size of pipe fittings like:
- Standard English sizes: These sizes range from 1/8вЂќ to greater than 36 вЂњ.
- Metric sizes: Popular metric sizes range from less than 10 mm to greater than 1000 mm.
- Schedule: The “schedule numbers” are assigned by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in order to classify the thickness of walls for use with different pressure. ANSI schedule numbers include all pipe and fitting sizes from NPS 1/8 through NPS 36, which are classified as Standard (STD), Extra Strong (XS) and Double Extra Strong (XXS) and all wall thicknesses by ANSI schedule number.
- Shape of fittings is another important parameter the buyer’s should consider while selecting pipe fittings. The popular shapes available for pipe fittings include oval, round, square and rectangular. However, the round or circular shape is the most popular one.
- Material: The type of material used for making pipe fittings is also very important. Construction and material specifications of pipe fittings are application-dependent. Optimization of component selection largely requires consultation of the users with the fitting suppliers. Actually a wide range of materials are used for making pipe fittings. The buyer’s are often confused judging the right material for fittings. The most common materials used include aluminum, carbon or graphite, ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene), CPVC (Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride), brass, bronze, ceramic or ceramic lined, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), stainless steel, carbon and alloy steel, concrete, EPDM, clay or vitrified clay, fiberglass or composite, fluororesin (PFA), glass or glass lined, rubber or elastomer, gray or cast iron, ductile iron, lead, neoprene, nylon or polyamide, polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), PTFE or PTFE lined, titanium, and zirconium.
- Pipe Fitting End: Buyers are often confused while selecting pipe fitting ends. Proper selection for pipe fitting end is very essential for proper flow of the material. The ends of pipe fittings are built slightly larger than in such a manner so that the connections can easily fit in without narrowing the inner diameter (ID) of the pipe. This keeps flow consistent. The most common fitting ends available are:
- Male pipe thread
- Female pipe thread
- Plain end bell or socket
- Flare or flange
- Male straight thread
- Female straight thread
- Compression fitting
- Pipe clamp end
- Barb or rib
- Connector types: While selecting pipe fittings, the buyer should make sure that a fitting can have two different connector types — threaded or slip, male or female. One end of the fitting might be male threaded and the other female threaded. Metal pipes are usually threaded, while plastic pipe can be threaded or slip fit. Generally, threaded pipes screw together to connect, while slip fit pipes make use of sleeves that slip into one another. Pipe fittings are kept in place by male and female connectors like:
- Male threaded: In this case, threads are exterior and are designed to screw into the inside of a larger diameter pipe end with internal threading.
- Female threaded: Here the threads are interior, designed to receive male threaded pipe fittings.
- Male slip fit: In this case, there are no threads, and the fittings are designed to slip into a female sleeve, slightly larger in size.
- Female slip fit: There are no threads, and are made to receive a narrower male slip fit.